Bibliography

A bibliography is an organized list of all the sources and references that you have used in writing your essay or research paper, which appears at the end of your document. Sometimes called as a reference list or the works cited page, bibliographies are normally required in all types of scholarly writing, and in most colleges and universities by professors. If you are a student and writing an essay or term paper for your class, your instructor will likely require you to include a bibliography in your paper.

The purpose of a bibliography is to acknowledge or to give credit to the original source of all the direct quotes, summaries, paraphrases, and quoted passages that you have taken from other works. It contains all of your citations in an alphabetized list, which show where you obtained all of the ideas and information used in writing your paper, and allowing your readers access to the original source.

There are three different major bibliography styles. Your class, or your professor, may request for a particular bibliography format, such as the APA style, established by the American Psychological Association. This style is mainly prescribed in writing essays for a number of social science courses. The MLA style, on the other hand, was developed by the Modern Association, and is commonly used by literary writers and scholars in the fields of literature, the humanities, and language studies. Another well-known bibliography format is the Chicago style, developed by the University of Chicago Press and fully explained in the Chicago Manual of Style. These bibliography formats have their own particular features and stylistic elements that set them apart from other bibliography styles. Always consult with your instructor on which style to use before formatting your bibliography.

Below are typical bibliography examples for each style:

For APA, please use the following format:

Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Book title. City {include state, province, or country if city is not well known}: Publisher.

Hamilton, E. (1942). Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes. New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing.

For MLA, please use the following format:

Author’s last name, First name Middle name. Book title City {include state, province, or country abbreviation if city is not well known}: Publisher, year published.

Hamilton, Edith. Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes. New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing, 1942.

For more bibliography examples, please consult with the respective style manuals.